November 22nd, 2008
Interior Lifestyle China opens its doors next week at the Shanghai Exhibition Centre with more than 200 exhibitors confirmed
International Home Accessories show to host on-site online interviews
Jacob’s Creek wine, care of Pernod-Ricard, returns as sponsor for Interior Lifestyle China
Interior Lifestyle China opens its doors next week at the Shanghai Exhibition Centre with a programme of 13 seminars and special exhibits. Running for four days, 19 – 22 November, the show will also house an array of high-end interior and lifestyle products from around the globe. More than 200 exhibitors are confirmed, including companies from Denmark, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Italy, Japan, Korea, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, Taiwan, UK and China.
The fair will feature the latest interior and lifestyle products including glass, porcelain, ceramics, cutlery, kitchen tools and appliances, arts and crafts, candles, other gift items, accessories, and soft furnishings.
International Home Accessories show to host on-site online interviews
In addition to purchasing high quality luxury household and consumer goods products at the fair, attendees will have the opportunity to take part in a range of exciting and informative special exhibits and seminars:
International Home Accessories Show interview – World renowned furnishing and accessory designers, buyers and brands will gather with the editor-in-chief for an exclusive online interview at Interior Lifestyle China. This show will be hosted by magazine and online consumer goods site e-jjj.com.
From Scratch to Success Panel Discussion – Moderator, Ms. Leslie Chen of Grotto Design Creations, will lead an open discussion on creating and maintaining brand perception in China
Process Warm Showcase – Supported by the interior magazine , this event will showcase a number of successful local designers’ work.
Brand presentations – These demonstrations will be hosted by Miji, Tayohya and WMF.
Design Masters’ House – A series of demonstration rooms featuring different lifestyles with exhibitor’s products. The Art Display & Decoration Comittee of China and the interior magazine support this event.
Designer and Manufacturer Showcase – A showcase bridging the gap between manufacturers, industrial designers and consumers and supported by the interior magazine .
Business Match Making Program – Management executives from key department stores and retailers will meet with brand names and exhibitors.
Designer Cocktail – Networking event as supported by the Art Display & Decoration Committee of China.
China Houseware Market Developing Conference – Experts and government authorities will present market analysis to discuss the latest developments in the local interior products industry. This special conference takes place on Wednesday, 19 November from 13:30 to 15:00.
On Design Shanghai gallery as presented at Frankfurt’s Ambiente. Featuring a range of well-known designers from around the world.
2008 Home Style Awards – The ceremony is the first of its kind in China and presentations will be made to the winners on the evening of Wednesday, 19 November 2008 at the Moller Villa.
Also available at the event will be Wine Tasting kiosks by Cheese & Fizz and Metier Atelier and On-site Cooking Demonstrations by Zwilling, Peugeot, Emile Henry WMF, Schulte-Ufer, Gorenje, Silit, Yoshikawa, Metier Atelier and JIMIX.
Jacob’s Creek wine, care of Pernod-Ricard, returns as sponsor for Interior Lifestyle China
A high quality yet affordable brand, Jacob’s Creek is enjoyed in over 65 countries, making it Australia’s most popular wine. The range has been awarded over 3, 500 show awards worldwide. Jacob’s Creek wine – sponsor of Interior Lifestyle China – will be served in cooperation with various onsite brand demonstrations and tasting programs throughout the fair.
For more information on Interior Lifestyle China 2008, please visit www.il-china.com or email email@example.com
Tags: Art Display & Decoration Committee of China, Arts, Arts and Crafts, Australia, China, Cocktail, consumer goods products, Denmark, Design, Design Shanghai gallery, e-jjj, Emile, Emile Henry, Exhibition, Exhibition Centre, Ford, France, Frankfurt, Germany, Hong Kong, Italy, Jacob's Creek, Japan, kitchen tools, Korea, Leslie Chen, Lifestyle, lifestyle products, Moller Villa, online, online consumer goods, Portugal, products, retail, Shanghai, Shanghai Exhibition Centre, Slovenia, Spain, Taiwan, United Kingdom
November 19th, 2008
DOMOTEX HANNOVER is not only the leading international showcase for the flooring sector – it is also the most important indicator of trends and developments in this sector worldwide. When it takes place again at its traditional Hannover venue from 17 to 20 January 2009, it will once more provide the entire industry with an incomparable platform for business. Deutsche Messe Hannover, the organizers of DOMOTEX, expect some 1, 350 exhibitors on a net display area of 92, 500 square metres (compared with 1, 336 exhibitors on 91, 757 square metres in 2007). As Stephan Ph. Kühne, Board member of Deutsche Messe AG, states: “The number of registered exhibitors is very encouraging, despite the current difficulties being experienced by the flooring industry. Particularly during periods of market weakness and volatility, companies need to seek new business leads, follow new initiatives and improve their image vis-à-vis the competition. There is no better place to do this than at DOMOTEX. Anyone wanting to do business, or find out about the latest trends and designs, should head for Hannover in January.” Visitors will find an impressive supporting program. Designer Ulf Moritz will again be offering installations incorporating the carpet as an artwork, the winners of the 2009 Carpet Design Awards 2009 will be presented and celebrities from the worlds of architecture and the skilled crafts will lecture on topical issues of relevance to the world of flooring.
Professionals from the trade, the skilled crafts, architecture and design who regularly visit DOMOTEX HANNOVER appreciate its clear focus. The event is solely dedicated to flooring. National and international market leaders exhibit their latest products and innovations, thereby making the event an exceptional barometer for trends in all kinds of flooring. DOMOTEX is the event favoured by decision-makers. Approximately 70 percent of all visitors are from top management, e.g. self-employed, directors, department heads. Consequently, in terms of buying potential, the event attracts the biggest demand-side audience worldwide within this sector. It is thus the perfect forum for new contacts and business leads. Numerous special presentations and events, meetings of professional bodies and associations, as well as conferences and seminars create ideal conditions for a direct dialogue between exhibitors and trade visitors, while also offering an additional source of information and expertise.
DOMOTEX HANNOVER has an international profile that is almost second to none. In January 2009, the event will again demonstrate its international appeal with around 80 percent of its exhibitors and approximately 55 percent of its visitors coming from outside the host nation Germany. At present, the list of ten countries with the largest contingent of exhibitors is topped by Germany, followed by Belgium, Turkey, India, the Netherlands, China, Switzerland, Italy, Egypt and the USA.
Trade show visitors will appreciate the high quality and diversity of the exhibits. The DOMOTEX display categories are as follows:
- Carpets/rugs (hand-made)
- Woven carpets/area rugs (machine-made)
- Textile and resilient floor coverings
- Fibres, yarns and textiles
- Wood and parquet flooring
- Laminated coverings
- Natural stone, ceramic tiles
- Laying skills, cleaning and application technologies
The basic structure and layout of the DOMOTEX exhibition site will be retained at the event next January, however Hall 18 will then also form part of the display of hand-made rugs and carpets. This display category will thus occupy Halls 14 to 18 next year. One of the chief benefits for both exhibitors and visitors is that the inclusion of Hall 18 will greatly improve visitor access to the various display categories, as it leads directly to Halls 2 and 3, which are occupied by exhibitors showcasing mainly machine-made carpets. Another clear improvement is the complete redesign of the entrance area Nord 1, which will not only make the entrance area visually more attractive, but also improve its functionality in terms of visitor convenience. The reconstruction work is scheduled for completion in December 2008 and will be finished on time for DOMOTEX HANNOVER 2009.
Numerous special events and meetings as well as an international architecture congress all serve to extend the scope and content of DOMOTEX HANNOVER 2009, which is geared to the various information needs of the individual target groups. During the four days of the trade show the visitors have an excellent opportunity to determine the latest trends, discover new designs and assess the competition. Numerous international organizations, professional bodies and associations use this trade summit as a central venue for meetings, conferences, seminars and association meetings.
The highlights of the program of special events are:
Congress and Exhibition for Architecture and Interior Design – the meeting-place for contracting business
Platform for the latest trends in contemporary carpets and textile floor coverings
Carpet Design Awards
Awards in recognition of innovative design, quality and creativity in hand-made carpets
Joint presentation focussing on hand-made rugs and carpets
Health and Safety Initiative for the Skilled Trades
Focus on health and safety
Skilled trades forum
Lecture program for the skilled trades
European Team Floor Laying Competition
Demonstration of speed, accuracy and workmanship
As in previous years, a combi-ticket will again be available for DOMOTEX HANNOVER. In other words, every admission ticket also serves as a valid ticket providing free travel on the Greater Hannover public transport network (GVH) for the duration of the event.
Tags: application technologies, Area, Belgium, China, Congress, Design, Deutsche Messe AG, Egypt, Europe, European, Exhibition, exhibition site, Germany, Hannover, India, Italy, January, Kingdom of the Netherlands, Loom Lounge, Netherland, Netherlands, products, public transport network, Rome, Special Events, Stephan Ph, Stone, Switzerland, Target, The Netherlands, Turkey, Ulf Moritz, United States
November 2nd, 2008
Dubai will host from 14 to 16 December 2008 Dubai Drink Technology Expo at Dubai Convention and Exhibition Centre.
This significant and unique event presents worldwide range of products and services in the area of beverages technology.
The event targets the promotion of the latest drink processing and packaging systems.
It offers the state-of-the-art technology, logistics solutions for beverages and liquid food processing industry.
Mr. Abdul Salam Al Madani, President INDEX Holding made the announcement at a press conference.
Mr. Al Madani added, Dubai Drink Technology 2008 would display the latest applied technologies, machinery, equipment, materials, and services. Brand owners, retailers, beverage service operators, manufacturers and processors will have the opportunity to network and contract.
Index Conferences and Exhibitions organizing Establishment member of INDEX Holding organizes Dubai Drink Technology Expo, 2008 which is a member of the American Beverages Association. It is the first of its type in the entire region and represents a significant addition to the exhibitions and conventions industry in Dubai. Al Madani said.
He added ‘Dubai Drinks Technology Expo. is an international platform for businesses operating in the industry, investors exploring new and innovated drinks ventures, and industry services providers. Participants will have excellent opportunities to network, negotiate, contract, and expand their operations in Dubai, the United Arab Emirates growing business hub, and in the Gulf and Middle East market place.
This high profile event is the largest show for plants and machinery employed in processing and producing beverages and liquid food, packaging technology, IT solutions, lab and analytic instruments, recycling systems …etc.
Giving the progressive trends in Drinks sector Mr. Al Madani stated that ‘the Middle East and North Africa beverages drinks market is witnessing noticeable expansion associated with the elevation in the standard of living and with healthy drinks increasing demand. Growth in Juices demand is projected by industry sources to increase by 12 percent annually while energy drinks by 13 percent.
Considering the socio economic barometers of the region, beverages producing industries will in the few coming years experience expansion in production and ultimately a lager Share in the market. New and innovated beverages will strongly penetrate the UAE and regional markets. Technology facilitating these expansions will be displayed during the Expo.
It is an added benefit for technology owners, suppliers, and manufacturers and to potential investors in the industry as well. The expo will comprise a number of specialized pavilions to display the latest production machinery and equipment, process and quality control instruments, storage, transport and handling services associated with this industry. International display centers for the leading companies in the production and processing of fruit juices, soft drinks, milk products, liquid food.
Centers for Tea and coffee from Germany, Spain, and France, UK, US, Brazil, Ethiopia, Kenya India, Sri-lanka, Thailand, China, Vietnam, and S. Korea will exhibit their products. Special area dedicated for displaying new technologies, innovated drink products. Mr. Al Madani said.
Mr. Ahmed Al Gaizi Director Economic Department at the UAE Federation of Chambers of Commerce and Industry said ‘ Considering the strategic Joint Cooperation Agreement signed with Index Conferences and Exhibition Establishment fully supports this economically and socially important event.
This event will naturally attract more investment to the UAE and elevate the quality and standards of drinks industry in the country. Index with its wide experience and professionalism is capable of organizing this event in the manner that reflects the high standard of Exhibition industry in the country.
The Federation of UAE Chambers of Commerce and Industry encourages drinks manufacturers and trading companies to seize this
excellent opportunity and actively participate in the exhibition’ .Al Gaizi added.
Mr. Awad Al Saqair Director Dubai Conventions Bureau of the Department of Tourism and Commerce Marketing said Dubai drink Technology Expo. is one of the important shows held in Dubai. It plays an important role in the transfer of technology , know-how and innovations in one of the most important industries. Dubai convention Bureau extends all possible support and assistance to Index conferences and exhibitions Establishment member of INDEX Holding to organize this important event in the best possible manner in line with the best international standards.
He added ‘Dubai is positioned as one of the leading conventions and exhibitions center in the world. Dubai Drink Technology Expo. is a real addition to conventions and exhibitions industry in the UAE and the region as well. We encourage the local industries and businesses engaged in drinks manufacturing and processing to take an active part in this unique event.’
Tags: Abdul Salam Al Madani, Africa, Ahmed Al Gaizi, Ahmed Al Gaizi Director Economic Department, Al Madani, America, American Beverages Association, and France, applied technologies, Area, Awad Al Saqair, Awad Al Saqair Director Dubai Conventions Bureau, beverage, beverage service operators, beverages technology, Brazil, China, Department of Tourism, drink processing, drink products, Dubai, Dubai Convention and Exhibition Centre, Dubai convention Bureau, Dubai drink Technology, energy, energy drinks, equipment, Establishment, Ethiopia, Exhibition, Exhibition Centre, Exhibitions, Federation of UAE Chambers of Commerce and Industry, food, France, Germany, INDEX Holding, India, Kenya, Korea, liquid food, liquid food processing industry, logistics solutions, machinery, Middle East, milk products, North Africa, of Commerce, production machinery, products, Project, retail, Rome, South Korea, Spain, Sri-lanka, Target, technology owners, Thailand, UAE Federation of Chambers of Commerce and Industry, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Vietnam
November 2nd, 2008
When the international natural stone industry meets in Nürnberg from 20-23 May, the exhibition centre will again be geared to stone and all its varieties. Stone+tec, which attracted some 1, 000 exhibitors and more than 40, 000 trade visitors at the last event, has constantly proved its importance as one of the major international exhibitions for natural stone and stone processing over a period of thirty years.
Despite all the prophecies of doom, no other European country has such a big demand for natural stone products as Germany. Even at times of worldwide financial and real estate crises, the Federal Republic can still be proud of its position by international comparison. With its sound economic basis and good relations and close proximity particularly with its neighbours in Central Eastern Europe, Germany offers an ideal marketplace for successful business. In the recently published edition of his comprehensive annual market analysis “Stone 2008 – World Marketing Handbook”, industry insider Dr. Carlo Montani emphasizes the growth rates of the worldwide natural stone trade. Although development varies in different countries and regions, the German market convinces through its high stability. Against this backdrop, Stone+tec in Nürnberg has succeeded in establishing itself as information pool for decision-makers from East and West in the three decades of its history. Its convenient geographical location has made it a major source of inspiration and popular get-together for the entire natural stone market.
More contacts – more information
The exhibitors at the last Stone+tec in 2007 welcomed visitors to their stands from all relevant fields of natural stone. 93 % of the exhibitors said they had reached their major target groups by exhibiting in Nürnberg:
79 % registered potential customers from natural stone contractors, 67 % from the trade, 56 % from stonemasonry firms, 43 % architects, 32 % from the gravestone business, 32 % from landscape contractors, 29 % tilers,
20 % from general building contractors, 19 % from official agencies,
16 % restorers and preservers of historic buildings, and 13 % from building material manufacturers.
Some one-third of the more than 40, 000 trade visitors in 2007 came from 76 countries outside Germany, but clearly focused on Europe. For around half of the visitors, Stone+tec is the only natural stone exhibition they visit. This combined with the fact that nine out of ten visitors are involved in procurement decisions in their companies makes Stone+tec an excellent business platform every two years: more than 90 per cent of the companies involved made new business connections in 2007.
The visitors were mainly interested in natural stone as a material for interior, facade and exterior use, plus tools, machinery and installations. About half the visitors stated these product segments as their reason for visiting the exhibition. There was also a strong demand for natural stone for gravestones, sacral use and monuments, and for grave design and decoration: more than a quarter of the visitors come to Nürnberg for this reason and Stone+tec does special justice to this interest with a separate hall for this segment.
Stone+tec not only offers a comprehensive range of products from the exhibitors, but also a supporting programme and special theme presentations for information and inspiration. The programme includes classics like the Natural Stone Architects Forum with the presentation of the German Natural Stone Award and the Peter Parler Award for outstanding achievements in the preservation of historic buildings in Europe, plus the 2009 Federal Congress of the German Stonemasonry, Stone and Wood Sculpturing Crafts with its special craft shows.
Two still rather new items from the supporting programme that attracted an excellent response from the audience from the start will also be continued in 2009: the seminar on professional laying of natural stone tiles and the special show “Natural Stone Architecture – Made in Germany”. The programme for 2009 will be enhanced by another highlight, which is still in the planning stage. But so much can be revealed: it concerns high-quality design and up-to-date forms of remembering the dead, which could provide a contrast to the trend towards anonymous burials.
With the range of products and services offered by the exhibitors and its supporting programme, Stone+tec 2009 will again provide inspiration for an industry concerned with a material that is literally as old as the hills – a material that is never outdated, but always topical, modern and fresh.
Products on display at Stone+tec 2009
- Natural stone for interior use, facades and exterior use; all types of stone and processing
- Fixing, maintenance, preservation and restoration of natural stone
- Industrial safety and environmental protection
- Services, trade press, associations
- Machines, installations and tools
- for quarrying natural stone
- for processing natural stone
- for moving and installing natural stone
- for manufacturing diamond tools
- Conveying, transport, packaging
Gravestones and accessories
- Natural stone for graveyards
- Grave design and decoration
Tags: Carlo Montani, Congress, Design, Easter, Eastern Europe, Europe, European, European co, Exhibition, Exhibition Centre, Exhibitions, Federal Congress, Germany, International information pool, Levant, Location, machinery, manufacturing diamond tools, natural stone products, Paris, Peter, products, real estate, real estate crises, Restoration, Stone, stone processing, stone products, Target, the Star, Ward An, West
July 6th, 2008
The local government of Cebu was received warmly by Austrian traders who showed great interest in investing and importing furniture from the province.
Cebu officials led by Gov. Gwendolyn Garcia were in full force during their visit to Vienna last month to present the province’s unique furniture business to the Austrian Chamber of Commerce.
â€œI really make this a point na dadalhin ko ang ating furniture manufacturers to open more market for the Cebu furniture industry our furniture is a world class,” Garcia said.
Garciaâ€™s group showed the audience the growing furniture industry in Cebu through a PowerPoint presentation.
â€œThis is a business matching session for the Cebu delegation with Mandaue Chamber of Commerce and Industries, the counterpart here in Austria is the Austrian Federation,â€ said Cebu Board Member Wenceslao Gakit.
Aside from Austria, the officials said they are also set to visit other countries in Eastern Europe.
The group hopes to establish more connections in other European countries like Slovenia, Slovakia, Croatia and Germany.
Tags: Austria, Austrian Chamber of Commerce, Austrian Federation, Cebu, Croatia, Easter, Eastern Europe, Europe, European, European co, Furniture, Furniture Industry, furniture maker, furniture makers, furniture manufacturer, furniture manufacturers, Germany, Gwendolyn Garcia, Mandaue, Mandaue Chamber of Commerce, of Commerce, Set, Slovakia, Slovenia, Vienna, Wenceslao Gakit
March 27th, 2008
Since 1993, Turkel Fair Organization Inc., has been organizing trade fairs on a wide spectrum across the four continents, including such countries as Russian Federation, Ukraine, Belarus, Baltic Republics, Poland, Germany, Italy, Greece, Hungary, Denmark, Spain, Latvia, Romania, Tunis, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Kenya, Ghana, Sudan, Syria, Nigeria, Venezuela, Canada, South Africa, Kazakhstan and Tatarstan.
Turkel organizes around thirty trade fairs each year and the biggest in its class international exhibition of fur- and leatherwear â€œLeShowâ€, which is annually staged in Moscow, is a kind of the companyâ€™s business card. Read more »
Tags: Africa, Argentina, Bulgaria, business to business, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Exhibition, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, India, Israel, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, mania, Moscow, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Poland, Project, Romania, Russia, South, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, The Fashion, Turkey, Ukraine, Vietnam
March 7th, 2008
Furniture retailer Ikea is recalling almost 1,000 baby highchairs in Britain because of safety fears.
The Swedish giant, the world’s largest furniture retailer, said 930 “Gulliver” highchairs sold in its 17 stores across the country in January and February were being recalled.
A spokesman said the product was also being recalled in almost two dozen countries throughout Europe.
He said in a statement that while no accidents had occurred, the company had acted after a customer complaint in Germany.
“(An) investigation traced the cause of the problem to human error affecting a few production weeks only,” he said. “Measures have been implemented to secure future deliveries.” Read more »
Tags: Britain, Europe, Furniture, furniture retail, furniture retailer, Germany, IKEA, Ingvar Kamprad, January, retail
March 4th, 2008
THE furniture industry is not all that different from the fashion industry, based on what SJI Industries Sdn Bhd managing director Benny Poh said.
Furniture makers have to work a few seasons in advance like the fashion houses. And they also have to predict what will become the next big trend.
â€œFurniture is no longer just a piece of wood. It has now become like fashion,â€ Poh told StarBiz. â€œThus you have to be competitive and avoid pitfalls by selling at lower prices.â€
According to him, players should offer higher value-added products rather than compete on pricing.
In addition, he said, they should learn how to market their products effectively. Read more »
Tags: added product, Britain, China, Datuk Tan Chin Huat, Design, Europe, Exhibition, Furniture, Furniture Fair, Furniture Industry, furniture maker, furniture makers, furniture manufacturer, furniture manufacturers, Germany, Green, local furniture manufacturers, Malaysia, Malaysia External Trade Development Corp, MIFF, MIFF Sdn Bhd, national furniture, Price, products, retail, Set, Small, Tan Chin Huat, The Fashion, Today, World Trade Centre
February 25th, 2008
The premiere edition of the China International Kitchen Furniture and Appliance Fair (CKFA) will debut in Guangzhou, China, from 27 to 30 March 2008 at the China Import & Export Fair Pazhou Complex. Riding on the increased development of China’s furniture and appliance industry, CKFA 2008 is the only quality trade fair in Asia that offers manufacturers and suppliers a unique trading platform for greater business opportunities. CKFA 2008 is jointly organized by the China Foreign Trade Centre (Group) and international trade fair organizer Koelnmesse.
It is held alongside the China International Furniture Fair (CIFF), the region’s largest and most influential event in the furniture industry. With CIFF’s ten-year success, its reputation as “Asia’s Furniture Sourcing Centre”, as well as Koelnmesse GmbH’s expertise in organizing leading global shows such as imm cologne, interzum and Domotechnica in Germany, CKFA is guaranteed to provide visitors with a world-class product line-up. CKFA 2008 will cover the full spectrum of kitchen and appliance products, and is complemented by seminars on the latest trends and technology in the market. Read more »
Tags: Asia, China, Design, Furniture, Furniture Fair, Furniture Industry, Germany, Guangzhou, Kitchen Furniture, Lifestyle, machinery, national furniture, products, The premiere, West
September 22nd, 2007
The debut “Interior Lifestyle China” opens its doors next week at the Shanghai Exhibition Centre. Running for four days, 13 â€“ 16 September, the show will house a vast array of high-quality and luxury household and consumer items from all over the world. Around 180 exhibitors are confirmed, including companies from Belgium, China, Denmark, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Italy, Japan, Portugal, Spain, Taiwan and Thailand. Interior Lifestyle China will be the first fair of its kind, establishing a high-class marketing and sourcing platform for international brand names in the China market.
The fair will be divided into three areas: Dining, Giving, and Living. In the ‘dining’ area, visitors will find glass, porcelain, ceramics, cutlery, kitchen tools and appliances, and other dining and cooking-related products. ‘Giving’ will house products such as arts and crafts, candles and other gift items. Furniture, accessories, and soft furnishings will make up the ‘living’ section of the fair. Read more »
Tags: Antique, Area, Arts, Arts and Crafts, Beijing, Belgium, China, Denmark, Design, Designers Gallery, Exhibition, Exhibition Centre, France, Furniture, Galax, Germany, Hong Kong, Italy, Japan, kitchen tools, Lifestyle, lifestyle products, Portugal, product manufacturer, products, retail, Shanghai, Shanghai Exhibition Centre, Shenzhen, Spain, Switzerland, Taiwan, Target, Thailand